Volcanoes

Overview

Volcanic ash can damage aircraft and disrupt air traffic. Agencies around the world track volcanic clouds and issue alerts to the aviation community. Now data from NASA earth-observing satellites is improving the ability to detect and forecast the hazard to aviation from volcanic clouds.

 

Resources

Latest Updates

May 6, 2018
SO2 plumes and Thermal Anomalies from Hawaii Eruption; May, 6th 2018
The slide shows a composite of satellite products to highlight plumes of Sulfur Dioxide and Hot spots from Lava erupting from Mt Kilauea and the new Fissures observed since May 3rd and May 4th in the Leilani areas.  The top panel shows a map of SO2 from the Tropomi sensor on the ESA Satellite Sentinel 5P for May 6th. Two main SO2 plumes are seen on the map emerging from the Kilauea crater ( Red triangle) and another source to the East is also visible. They eventually...
May 6, 2018
MISR highlights June 23rd 2018
June 23rd, 2018 Volcanic eruptions can generate significant amounts of atmospheric aerosols that often have regional to global impacts. To determine the influence of volcanic eruptions, accurate plume heights are needed, but are difficult to obtain  due to the hazardous nature of such eruptions. Stereo images from NASA’s Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) make it possible to map plume heights in ongoing eruptions using parallax in the stereo imagery. We can also...
May 5, 2018
Data from the the Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) sensor on the Suomi NPP satellite, acquired April 30 - May 5, 2018
Data from the the Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) sensor on the Suomi NPP satellite, acquired April 30 - May 5, 2018 Kilauea has been erupting continuously since 1983, but in late April and early May 2018 the volcanic eruption took a dangerous new turn. During the last week of April, the lava lake at Halema‘uma‘u Overlook crater ...
May 4, 2018
Sentinel 1B 12-day interferogram: April 23, 2018, 4:15 p.m. UTC to May 5, 2018, 4:15 p.m. UTC
Sentinel 1B image from May 5th, 2018. Sentinel 1B 12-day interferogram: April 23, 2018, 4:15 p.m. UTC to May 5, 2018, 4:15 p.m. UTC The ESA Sentinal 1 mission has produced a series of interferograms for the recent volcanic eruption and earthquake that have occurred at the Kilauea volcano on...
May 2, 2018
Ash Deposition on Ambae Island from March-April 2018 Aoba eruptions
Multiple eruptions from the locally named “Manaro” volcano on the Ambae (Aoba) Island in Vanuatu have led the evacuations of thousands of people affected by the disposition of thick volcanic ash layers on the Ground leading to widespread destructions of Farm lands. Satellite imageries from ESA/Sentinel 2B using wavelength bands sensitive to monitor crops show the extension of the devastation since March, 10th. The quasi-continous eruptions (see ash plume, image on March, 15th) have led to...
April 24, 2018
Brightness Temperature Difference-based detection of sulfur dioxide (SO2).  The larger (absolute value) differences suggest larger quantities of SO2.
Examples of Ambae data products from the AIRS Rapid Response Website at JPL.  This site, currently under development, contains data products generated automatically for AIRS granules, or scenes.   The AIRS Rapid Response products may be used to track the dispersion of SO2 (Image 1) and ash clouds (Image 2) following an explosive volcanic eruption. The cloud cover product (Image 3) is an aid to interpreting the SO2 and ash detection products. The cloud cover was dense, with a tropical cyclone developing off the coast of Australia. The apparent lack of ash, relative to the presence...
April 20, 2018
Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS Aura satellite measures ~0.12 Tg  SO2 emission from Aoba (Vanuatu) volcanic eruption
This volcanic SO2 plume data from the Aoba volcano (Vanuatu) explosive eruption on April 5 2018 was retrieved using the Ozone monitoring Instrument (OMI) operational Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm (OMSO2) on April 6. Volcanic SO2 measured by satellite UV sensors allows tracking fast movements of volcanic ash clouds , which present hazard to aviation. In large explosive eruptions volcanic SO2 can be injected directly into lower stratosphere where it...
February 3, 2018
Mt. Fuego eruption
  It is one of Central America’s most active volcanos. Volcán de Fuego puffs continuously without notice by nearby communities, punctuated by episodes with explosive activity, huge ash plumes, and lava flows. The Guatemalan volcano is at it again, beginning its latest bout of unruly behavior on January 31, 2018. On the next day, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8...
November 30, 2017
MODIS True Color Terra Image
Imagery Acquired November 27, 2017 This RGB image from MODIS/Terra on November, 27th shows the presence of ash vented out from the Agung volcano as gray and brownish areas above clouds and/or water. This contrasts with the whiter clouds on the left side of the image.
November 30, 2017
SO2 emission map
Acquried November 29, 2017 Figure 1 shows volcanic sulfur dioxide (VSO2) plume emitted from the eruption of Mt. Agung (Bali, Indonesia) and first captured by Aura/OMI and SNPP/OMPS UV spectrometers afternoon overpasses on November 26 2017, just hours after the beginning of the explosive magmatic phase of the eruption. The data show total SO2 column amounts in Dobson Units (1 DU = 2.69 1016 molecules SO2 per cm2). Background SO2 concentrations in this location are undetectable from space,...
January 3, 2017
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured this image on January 3, 2017.
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured this image on January 3, 2017. It was loud and brief. For a few minutes around 9 p.m. on January 3, 2017, Alaska’s Bogoslof volcano let loose an explosion. According to the Alaska Volcano Observatory, cloud-top temperatures indicate the volcanic plume may have reached as high as...
April 3, 2016
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on NASA’s Terra and Aqua satellites acquired this image of the ash plume at 11:45 a.m. Alaska time (21:45 Universal Time) on March 28, 2016.
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on NASA’s Terra and Aqua satellites acquired this image of the ash plume at 11:45 a.m. Alaska time (21:45 Universal Time) on March 28, 2016. In late March 2016, Pavlof volcano on the Alaskan Peninsula began erupting again for the first time since November 2014. Alaska’s most active volcano has erupted six times since 1996 and 21 times in the past 50 years....

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