September 15, 2020
As a child, Kristopher Bedka was fascinated with weather extremes. He grew up in Chicago and always wanted to experience the maximum that the atmosphere had to offer. “When it was forecasted to be cold, I always wanted to see and feel what record cold and snow were like. I wanted us to have two feet of snow instead of two inches. When a severe storm warning was issued, I always stared out the window wanting to see the worst of the storm.” In high school he was given a survey that asked him to choose what he wanted to be when he grew up, and among all of the options meteorologist stood out to him. After reading about some of the possibilities within the field of meteorology, he decided to give it a try. After graduating from high school he went on to receive his Bachelor of Science in meteorology at Northern Illinois University, and his Master of Science in atmospheric sciences and meteorology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
September 12, 2020
Climate and fire scientists have long anticipated that fires in the U.S. West would grow larger, more intense, and more dangerous. But even the most experienced among them have been at a loss for words in describing the scope and intensity of the fires burning in West Coast states in September 2020. Lightning initially triggered many of the fires, but it was unusual and extreme meteorological conditions that turned some of them into the worst conflagrations in the region in decades. Record-breaking air temperatures, periods of unusually dry air, and blasts of fierce winds—on top of serious drought in some areas—led fires to ravage forests and loft vast plumes of smoke to rarely seen heights. “We had a perfect storm of meteorological factors come together that encouraged extreme burning,” said Vincent Ambrosia, the associate program manager for wildfire research in NASA’s Earth Applied Sciences Program. “That was layered on top of shifting climate patterns—a long term drying and warming of both the air and vegetation—that is contributing to the growing trend we are seeing toward larger, higher-intensity fires in the U.S. West.” The buildup of fuels may be another relevant factor. Human efforts to extinguish most fires over the past 120 years has led to an increase in old, overgrown forests in the West that burn intensely when they catch fire, explained Ambrosia.
September 10, 2020
When a hail storm strikes, the damage can be catastrophic for homes, businesses, agriculture and infrastructure. In fact, with damage totals sometimes exceeding $1 billion, hailstorms are the costliest severe storm hazard for the insurance industry, making reliable, long-term data necessary to estimate insured damage and assess extreme loss risks. Video of Hailstorm near Burkburnett, Texas A Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite–16 (GOES-16) animation of color-enhanced infrared wavelength temperature overlaid upon visible wavelength brightness imagery from May 22-23, 2020. White-colored areas embedded within magenta shading indicate cloud temperatures colder than -80 degrees Celsius and strong updrafts, commonly referred to as overshooting cloud tops. A plume of warmer colors (red) with different cloud top texture streaming to the northeast out of the updraft near Burkburnett, Texas indicate an above anvil cirrus plume, a strong indicator of ice injection into the stratosphere and an extremely severe storm. Hail exceeding 5 inches (12.5 cm) in diameter was observed in Burkburnett and 4-inch (10 cm) diameter hail was reported near Davidson, Oklahoma. That’s why a team of NASA scientists is working with international partners to use satellite data to detect hailstorms, hail damage, and improve our understanding of hail frequency. This project will provide long term regional- to global-scale maps of severe storm occurrence, catastrophe models, and new methods to improve short-term forecasting of these storms. “We’re using data from many satellite sensors to really dig in and understand when and where hailstorms are likely to occur and the widespread damage that they can cause," said Kristopher Bedka, principal investigator at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. "This is a first-of-its-kind project and we’re beginning to show how useful this satellite data can be to the reinsurance industry, forecasters, researchers, and many other stakeholders.”
September 4, 2020
Researchers from the MISR Active Aerosol Plume-Height (AAP) Project, based out of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland and the University of Maryland, used data from NASA's Terra satellite to map the properties and near-source dispersion of smoke plumes from California’s Milepost 21 wildfire that burned during August 2020. Credit: MISR Active Aerosol Plume-Height (AAP) Project / K.J. Noyes, R. Kahn, J. Limbacher (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) At least seven major wildfires were burning across California as early as 10:30 a.m. PDT on August 20th, 2020. They are identified as hot-spots at 4 microns wavelength, highlighted as red dots and superposed on this true-color image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard the NASA Terra satellite. Wildfires tend to increase in intensity during the day, and fire activity usually peaks in the late afternoon. The Multi-Angle Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MISR), orbiting aboard NASA’s Terra satellite, obtains less coverage than MODIS. However, MISR stereo imagery makes it possible to map injection heights and associated wind vectors for wildfire smoke and volcanic eruption plumes. With these data, we can also retrieve smoke particle properties, track their evolution downwind, and distinguish them from metrological clouds.
September 3, 2020
On July 27, 2020, the International Space Station passed over the Orinoquia Nature Region in Colombia, allowing astronauts to capture photographs showing the impacts of recent flooding rainfall in the region. These photographs were then georeferenced by the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit at NASA Johnson Space Flight Center and sent to the National Unit for Disaster Risk Management (UNGRD) of Colombia by coordinators from the NASA Earth Applied Sciences Disasters Program to aid in identifying the extent and impact of the flooding. Photograph from the International Space Station taken on July 27, 2020, showing high water levels in the river that passes through the town of Puerto Lopez, Colombia. Credit: Image courtesy of the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA Johnson Space Center When asked for feedback on the imagery, representatives from UNGRD stated: “This information was essential to support the analysis of flood zones in a sector of the Orinoquia in Colombia … and contributed in supporting Colombian authorities during this emergency response quickly - and remotely. These images allowed us to carry out a multi-temporal analysis of the area and to identify critical sites with respect to a possible flood. “
September 2, 2020
Earth-observing instruments on satellites and aircraft are mapping the current fires, providing data products to agencies on the ground that are responding to the emergency. As California experiences one of the worst wildfire seasons on record, NASA is leveraging its resources to help. Scientists supporting the agency's Applied Sciences Disaster Program in the Earth Sciences Division are generating maps and other data products that track active fires and their smoke plumes while also identifying areas that may be susceptible to future risks. "When disasters like this occur, we are able to swiftly respond to requests from our partners who need images and mapping data," said David Green, manager of the Disasters Program at NASA Headquarters in Washington. "Likewise, in the aftermath of the fires, our researchers will use orbital and aerial data of the burn areas to help mitigate hazards such as landslides and mudslides." Most of the data comes from the numerous satellite instruments that pass over the state, such as the MOderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instruments aboard the Suomi-NPP satellite, and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument onboard the CALIPSO satellite.
September 1, 2020
Members of the NASA Earth Applied Sciences Disasters Program recently participated in the SERVIR-GEOGloWS Hackathon, a virtual app development event for participants to create geospatial and scientific web applications related to water sustainability. The Hackathon was virtually co-hosted by SERVIR, a joint venture between NASA and the U.S. Agency for International Development to provide state-of-the-art Earth observing data to improve environmental decision-making in developing nations, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Global Water Sustainability Program (GEOGloWS) and the Brigham Young University (BYU) Hydroinformatics Lab. The hackathon took place August 3 – 7, 2020. Screenshot from the prototype HydroSAR Viewer app, which was developed during the hackathon to support rapid sharing of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)-based flood mapping products with end users. In the future all app layers could be made available through Web Mapping Service (WMS) technology upon deployment, facilitating easy embedding into the NASA Disasters Mapping Portal. Credit: NASA
August 28, 2020
On August 25th, Several days before Hurricane Laura made landfall as a destructive category 4 storm in Louisiana, NASA’s Terra satellite flew over Laura in the Gulf of Mexico. Using its Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument, the satellite collected data on wind speeds and cloud-top heights as the storm intensified and moved northwest towards the U.S. Gulf Coast. Interactive visualization of 3D cloud-top height data from Hurricane Laura on August 25th, 2020, captured by the MISR instrument onboard NASA’s Terra satellite. Click here to view fullscreen. Credit: NASA Disasters Program, Esri The NASA Earth Applied Sciences Disasters Program Geographic Information Systems (GIS) team worked closely with representatives from the Esri 3D team to produce the first-ever interactive 3D visualization of MISR cloud-top height data and publish it to the NASA Disasters Mapping Portal. Cloud-top height data can be used to examine the structure of tropical storms and identify features that may indicate future strengthening or weakening of the storm system. In this visualization, some higher clouds seen near the center of the storm may indicate a building eyewall. In other storms, features such as “hot towers” can be identified - clouds of warm, moist air within the eyewall that extend high into the atmosphere and indicate potential rapid intensification for hurricanes. MISR also captures data on the direction and velocity of wind at the cloud-tops, which aids researchers in better understanding a storms structure and potential development.
August 28, 2020
Early in the morning on Aug. 27, Hurricane Laura made landfall along the Louisiana and Texas coastline, bringing 150 m.p.h. winds, flash floods and heavy rainfall with it. On the ground, emergency personnel mobilized to respond to the Category 4 storm. But for NASA’s fleet of Earth-observing satellites, it was business as usual. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the NOAA-20 satellite acquired this image of Hurricane Laura at 2:50 a.m. CT on August 27, 2020, about two hours after the storm made landfall. Clouds are shown in infrared using brightness temperature data, which is useful for distinguishing cooler cloud structures from the warmer surface below. That data is overlaid on composite imagery of city lights from NASA’s Black Marble dataset. Credit: NASA Earth Observatory Those satellites – as well as several from NASA’s international partner space agencies – constantly orbit Earth, using sophisticated sensors to collect data about what’s going on down below. When Hurricane Laura hit, NASA already had eyes on the storm. “We use that cutting-edge NASA science to address disasters,” said Lori Schultz, a remote-sensing scientist with the University of Alabama who is leading NASA’s efforts on this storm for the NASA Earth Applied Sciences Disasters Program. The program seeks to provide disaster response and management personnel with relevant, up-to-date information to help communities prepare for disasters and manage recovery efforts.
August 27, 2020
The NASA / JAXA GPM Core Observatory satellite flew over Hurricane Laura shortly before it made landfall at 10:00pm CT on Wednesday, August 26th, then again at 7:42am CT on Thursday, August 27th when it was over land, capturing data on precipitation within the storm. This visualization from the 10:00pm CT August 26 GPM overpass shortly before Laura made landfall shows GPM Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) data (center track) overlaid on GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) data showing the intensity of precipitation within the storm. Credit: Joe Munchak (NASA GSFC)