AIRS Rapid Response Data Products for Ambae Eruption CloudsPlume Detection

April 24, 2018

AIRS Rapid Response Data Products for Ambae Eruption CloudsPlume Detection

Examples of Ambae data products from the AIRS Rapid Response Website at JPL.  This site, currently under development, contains data products generated automatically for AIRS granules, or scenes.  

The AIRS Rapid Response products may be used to track the dispersion of SO2 (Image 1) and ash clouds (Image 2) following an explosive volcanic eruption. The cloud cover product (Image 3) is an aid to interpreting the SO2 and ash detection products. The cloud cover was dense, with a tropical cyclone developing off the coast of Australia. The apparent lack of ash, relative to the presence of SO2, suggests that much of the ash produced by the eruption was  below the altitude of the cloud deck.  

Brightness Temperature Difference-based detection of sulfur dioxide (SO2).  The larger (absolute value) differences suggest larger quantities of SO2.

Brightness Temperature Difference-based detection of sulfur dioxide (SO2).  The larger (absolute value) differences suggest larger quantities of SO2.

AIRS Dust Score-based detection of silicate ash. Larger dust scores suggest larger quantities of ash.

AIRS Dust Score-based detection of silicate ash. Larger dust scores suggest larger quantities of ash.

Cloud cover map, based on contemporaneous MODIS-Aqua data.  The outline of the AIRS scene is superimposed in green.

Cloud cover map, based on contemporaneous MODIS-Aqua data.  The outline of the AIRS scene is superimposed in green. 

Data acquired by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). AIRS provides daily global coverage through the combination of day and night-time observations.

Detection of SO2 and ash (silicate mineral dust) is based on the AIRS Near-Real Time (NRT) 'BT_diff_SO2' and 'Dust Score' products, which in turn are based on the AIR1BQAP_NRT product. The NRT products are generated at the Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC), and are available with 3 hours of the corresponding satellite observation.

The Plume Detection procedure, developed at JPL, is applied to every BT_diff and Dust Score product. The procedure identifies grid cells where the BT_Diff and Dust Score values exceed preset thresholds, counts the number of flagged cells, and evaluates the adjacency between flagged cells. The JPL map products are generated automatically for scenes containing sufficient contiguous detections, and are available within 4 hours of the corresponding satellite observation. 

Data Sources: 

The Rapid Response website is currently under development at JPL.